Cannot access the kernel driver
The solution I found was to open up the control panel and go to "Programs and Features" applet. I selected the "Sun Virtual Box" item from the list and selected the repair option. This essentially went through the install of the software again and repaired any missing or damaged files.
How it got damaged in the first place I do not know but the above solution fixed it for me. I was then able to open up my VMs as usual again.
For more of my "It Fixed It for Me" series please click here